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Selected articles about generator circuit breaker (The fifth part)

Today (24 October 2020), I am publishing 3 article topics about Generator Circuit Breakers (GCB) that I think are useful articles for all friends and colleagues, along with a summary and the names of the authors of the article and article DOI number & date of publish:

Article 1:

The Importance of Analysis and Simulation for Generator Circuit Breaker  applications: Technical Background, Dual Logo Standard Prescription, Helpful Models and Tools and Definitive Benefit for the Users


The approach to the selection of the right generator circuit breaker for each specific generation plant has globally  changed, thanks to the introduction of new IEC/IEEE 62271-37-013 Standard.According to this  standard, the process for selection of the generator circuit breaker shall be accompanied by a proper analysis of the main parameters and characteristics of the plant, which can vary from project to project.This is crucial to achieve the full protection of all generator plant assets with the best fitting generator breaker according to the latest Standard.This paper is aimed to explain the Standard prescriptions about generator circuit breaker assessment and selection, after a brief technical background, to provide an overview on the main tools currently used for this purpose and, finally, to detail the main end-user benefits from this approach.

Authors: Andrea Ferruccio,Andreas Brandt

Date of Publication:7-9 May 2019 in PCIC Europe Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference Europe – Electrical and Instrumentation Applications

DOI: 10.23919/PCICEurope46863.2019.9011563

Article 2:

Computer Simulation of Transient Processes in Hybrid Generator Circuit Breaker During Interruption of Short Circuit Current


The research is dedicated to computer simulation of transients occurring in a hybrid generator circuit breaker during interruption of three-phase short circuit current when the fault is located at the grid’s side. Mathematical models of the hybrid circuit breaker elements were described: the arc model between the main contacts in the air, the vacuum arc chamber, and the thyristor switch model. Simulation of the transients occurring in the hybrid generator circuit breaker was performed using ATPDraw software program. Three different arrangements of the hybrid circuit breaker were considered, a comparative analysis of their operation was carried out. To minimize arc current and reduce arc duration the algorithm of the optimum hybrid circuit breaker performance was suggested.

Authors: S. V. Smirnov , Georgy Evdokunin ,Anna Petrova, Andrei S. Brilinskii

Date of Publication:27-30 Jan. 2020 in IEEE NW Russia Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Conference.

DOI: 10.1109/EIConRus49466.2020.9039412


Article 3:

Evaluation of the Impact of Out-Of-Phase Faults on Generators and Generator Circuit-Breakers implementing Vacuum Interruption Technology


Generator Circuit-Breakers (GCB), which are installed between the synchronous generator and the Generator Step-Up Transformer (GSUT), are not only used to interrupt the system source and generator source short-circuit currents but also to synchronize the generator with grids. During the process of the synchronization an Out-of-phase (Oop) fault can occur due to the wiring errors either from commissioning or from maintenance activities on the plant equipment. The angle of Oop decides the stresses on the equipment where a higher Oop angle leads to higher transient recovery voltages (TRV) and fault currents. At lower Oop angles, the DC time constant of the fault current will be longer that could lead to delayed current zeros. Thus, the stresses on the GCB while clearing the fault currents will be higher. This requires a GCB that is able to withstand longer arcing times and be interrupt these currents reliably.The vacuum interruption technology is well established in the medium voltage range up to 52 kV especially in the distribution circuits. The new dual logo standard IEC/IEEE 62271-37-013 (2015) describes the test procedure for testing generator circuit breaker with Out-of-phase faults and defines a maximum Out-Of-Phase angle of 90 °. The aim of this paper is to show the impact of Out-Of-Phase faults on generators and GCBs implementing vacuum interruption technology. Based on multiple simulations with different generator types using the commercial software PSS Netomac the impact of generator’s electrical & mechanical parameters on the Out-Of-Phase fault current behavior is studied. VGCBs have a special advantage in handling such Oop faults due to their capacity to withstand longer arcing times when compared to SF6. This makes VGCBs as a reliable technology in generator switching applications than other existing technologies today.

Authors: Fabian Rademacher , Karthik R. Venna

Date of Publication:13-16 Oct. 2019 in IEEE NW Russia Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Conference.

DOI: 10.1109/ICEPE-ST.2019.8928931



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